Message to the reader
This issue is devoted to political processes in modern France. The choice of such problems is dictated by the past events of the presidential elections in 2017 in this country, which caused surprise and puzzlement of many French and raised numerous questions to researchers of modern history and politics of France. These elections and their results were very different from the usual picture of the political struggle in France during the Fifth Republic. Although the researchers drew attention for a long time to the crisis features in the activities of the leading political parties in France, as well as to the problem of privatization of politics, that is, the growing influence of individual politicians against the background of the weakening of political structures, but such a failure of the main parties was not expected. Absolutely unexpected was the dizzying career of a young politician E. Macron, who managed to create his new political movement just before the elections, which led him to the top of political power in France. All these events require reflection and explanation, both from a historical and political point of view.
This is what the articles of this issue of the journal are devoted to. The authors present the attempts to analyze the main political forces from the left to the right flank and their role in the past events. The situation on the left flank is discussed in two articles. Thus, the article by A.A. Vershinin analyzes the reasons for the largest defeat of the French socialist party, which not only receded into the background, but also risks to get off the political scene. The author examines the operation and confrontation moves "Forth Republic" E. Macron and "Unconquered France" by Jean-L. Melanchon as the main competitors of socialists on the left flank. The author believes that the political struggle of these forces goes beyond the traditional confrontation on the left flank, causing numerous questions about the essence of what could be considered the left flank in France at the present time. The research of A.S. Caplya about the French greens, who for many years were allies of socialists, adjoins to the problems of this article. The author begins with an analysis of the successful 2012 election campaign for this party, and then shows how the greens suffered the most serious defeat in 2017, having lost their representation in the national Assembly of France.
The situation on the right flank of the French political spectrum was the subject of three articles. N.N. Naumova has dedicated here work to the political biography of the leader of the Gaullist movement "Arise, France!" N. Dupont-Aignan and his participation in the election campaign of 2017. The author convincingly shows how Dupont-Aignan has managed to become a prominent political figure in the election campaign of 2017 and attract the attention of the French to the ideas of the "historic Gaullism", whose apologist he calls himself. If the results of the campaign of the small movement "Arise, France!" and its leader N. Dupont-Aignan can still be considered relatively successful, the Republican party-the largest party of the right camp in France faced serious problems. A.A. Preobrazhenskaya considers party activities in the presidential and parliamentary campaigns of 2017. The author concludes about the large-scale defeats of the party. This result, according to the author, was caused by a combination of factors of long-term and market character, and not the last place in it was taken by a little popular socio-economic program of the candidate of the party. The study of the first months of the Republicans' actions in the opposition gives grounds to the author to conclude that the party is experiencing a deep crisis, after the defeats, ideological and strategic differences between different groups ones have come to the surface.
Much more successful, although no less controversial, is the activity of the National front - the party on the far right flank. The results of its political campaign are considered in the article by A.V. Zhidkova. Although the electoral campaign of 2017 for The national front proved successful, the party and its leaders made a number of mistakes, which, as the author writes, turned out to be a disappointment for the party voters and led to an internal party crisis. The article deals with the consequences of internal conflicts and prospects for further development of the party, the issues of its reorganization and program-ideological restructuring, as well as financial and political difficulties facing the National front.
We should also highlight two articles on the figure of E. Macron and his movement. G.N. Kaninskaya raises the question of the essence of such a phenomenon as "macronism" in ideological and political terms and tries to answer the question of whether the election of Macron opens a new page in the history of the Fifth Republic in France. An article of G.Ch. Moiseev is also dedicated to E. Macron but from a different point of view. The author focuses on the problem of behavior E. Macron as a political leader, on his style preferences and memorable symbolic gestures, publicly demonstrated in different forms, but not always causing an unambiguous reaction from the French. Among the articles presented in the collection, there is the work of P.P. Timofeev, dedicated to the role and impact of the "russian factor" on the course of the election campaign in France in 2017. The author emphasizes that the specifics and limitations of Russian influence played a special, but not decisive role in the outcome of the presidential elections in 2017.
In this issue the reader will also find two special sections. Article published in the section “Historical portraits” for the first time in Russian historiography studies the political biography of the French Socialist André Philip. The article analyzes the role of A. Philip in the French Socialist Party (FSWI) during the period from 1930s to 1950s, in the Resistance movement during the Second World War, and in the new French left parties that emerged in 1958–1960.
Within the column "Problems of democracy in the modern world" the article by T.V. Nikitina and V.I. Stepanidina is published. It examines the transition from dictatorship to democracy in Greece after the fall of the military regime in 1974 - 1975, the policy of the civil government of Konstantin Karamanlis in solving the problem of democratization of the country.
In the "Conferences" section of this issue the reader will find the reports on conferences and proceedings that were recently held at the Faculty of History. In addition in our traditional section "Reviews" we publish reviews of the most interesting new researches.
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